(completed subtitles) Lesson 117: WITH, TO, FOR
Hi everybody and welcome to another delve into the wonderful world of English.
My name is Misterduncan and I’m so happy to be here again with you!
This is ‘Full English number fifteen’.
I thought it would be nice to start today’s lesson outside.
I’m not indoors, I’m outdoors. I’m out in the open.
I’m enjoying the peace and quiet of the outdoors.
It’s a perfect day for it too, as the sun is out and it is quite calm today.
A calm day and a calm Misterduncan.
I hope you are feeling calm and relaxed too.
So sit back and get ready for today’s ‘Full English’ lesson… which is starting…now!
There is often confusion in the way in which the words — ‘with’, ‘to’, and ‘for’ are used.
So I thought I would briefly explain their uses and differences.
First of all, the word ‘with’ expresses a connection between two or more things.
The connection between things, people, an ability or action.
‘To go along with’ — ‘To be with’ — ‘To see with’ or ‘hear with’ …
‘To join with’ — ‘To sing with’ — ‘To sit with’.
The word ‘to’ expresses direction.
This can be real and physical, or imagined.
The direction that something is going in.
‘Go to you’ — ‘Come to me’ — ‘Travel to work’ — ‘Walk to the shop’.
‘Send a letter to someone’ — ‘Look to the future’.
A disire or need (or action) can be expressed with ‘to’.
‘I want to see you’ — ‘I need to sleep’ — ‘I want to go home’.
The word ‘for’ can be used to show that you are in favour of something.
‘I’m for it’ — ‘They are for banning it’ — ‘The vote is for a change’.
To affect or have the ability to affect something in regard of its progress can be expressed with ‘for’.
‘To be responsible for’.
To offer support for someone or something, means you are for it.
To agree or support is to ‘be for’.
The opposite of ‘for’ in this use is ‘against’.
There is nothing like breathing in some of that fresh countryside air.
Did you know that the word ‘air’ has more than one use?
First — the air we breathe is air.
This describes the combination of oxygen and nitrogen we take in with every breath.
The word air can express an open space. A place outdoors with lots of space to move around in can be referred to as ‘open air’.
The unconfined and free space above the earth is air.
You can throw something up into the air. Aeroplanes and birds fly in the air, or through the air.
To travel, by using a mode of transport that flies can be described as travelling by air.
To transmit a signal through the the earth’s atmosphere is to send something over the air.
The radio or TV signal that is being transmitted is ‘on air’.
To air something is to transmit and send something out over the air.
A gentle breeze can be described as air.
To dry or freshen something outside is to air.
«I’ve just put my washing (clothes) outside to air for a while.»
There are phrases that use the word ‘air’ such as — ‘up in the air’. Which means to leave something unresolved and waiting to be settled.
«Are you just going to walk away and leave this problem up in the air?»
Then there is ‘hot air’, which describes the things said by a person who overstates their intentions and exaggerates their abilities.
«Please ignore what he said, it’s all just hot air.»
You can ‘walk on air’, which is an expression that shows elation and the feeling of being overjoyed by something.
You feel so happy, it’s as if you are walking on air.
It is possible to have an air, or to give off an air.
In this sense we are expressing how a person appears, or seems to be behaving.
The impression that seema to be given by someone, based on their behaviour or manner.
«He replied with an air of arrogance.»
«Her posture had an air of sadness.»
‘They answered with an air of stupidity.»
The jump off the ground using a snowboard or skateboard is an ‘air’.
To give an opinion publicly is to «air».
«She stood up and proceeded to air her views».
«You are welcome to air your views if you wish.»
To expose a room to fresh air by opening a door or window is to ‘air’.
«I have left the window open, so as to air (freshen) the room.»
Here is the word that might be familiar to you.
The word ‘technology’ generally relates to any complicated tool that has been created to carry out a task of some sort.
This task can be a simole one — such as adding up numbers…right up to the really complex and difficult ones…
…such as steering a jumbo jet or sending someone to the moon.
There are some other words that relate to technology …such as — ‘device’ which is something that uses
technology to function, such as a smartphone or tablet.
They are types of devices. The device forms the hardware of the technology, while the programmes and applications
running inside are the software.
The are both forms of technology.
It is hard to imagine what life was like before modern technology came along.
Technology is used almost everywhere now.
In factories and offices, on our leisure pursuits, in our cars and homes.
And perhaps in the not too distant future, as a part of the human body.
It would be fair to say that virtually all of the great technological leaps forward
have occurred during the past hundred years.
Since the discovery of electricity, our world has been magically transformed into
an amazing wonderland, where our thirst for information can be easily quenched
and the human imagination is encouraged to run free.
Do you like technology? Would you miss it, if it wasn’t around?
What piece of technology do you use the most?
A computer game? A mobile device? A super-duper talking watch?
Which piece of technology are you looking forward to using in the future?
A flying bicycle? A driverless car? An artificial brain?
A holographic TV perhaps?
Will they ever be a reality? Only time will tell.
Here is an interesting question. When is a question not a question?
That is indeed a very interesting question.
In English it is possible to express an interrogative sentence without requiring an answer or reply.
We call this a ‘rhetorical question’.
A rhetorical question is normally used as a form of exclamation.
You use a rhetorical question to create a dramatic effect or to make an impact.
The feeling of frustration or anger can lead to a rhetorical question being used.
«Why does it always rain on my day off?»
«Could my life get any worse?»
«Am I surrounded by idiots?»
«Is nothing sacred anymore?»
These rhetorical questions do not require an answer.
Sometimes it is necessary to explain that what appeares to be a question is
in fact — rhetorical.
«Are you all mad?»
Don’t answer that — it’s a rhetorical question.
Can you see what I’m doing here?
A few days ago I accidentally cut my hand.
Ther was some blood coming from the wound.
After a while it stopped bleeding and the blood dried to form a scab.
A scab is the part of a wound on the surface of the skin.
The scab protects the wound from infection and allows the damaged skin to heal. To heal is to repair and make better. The problem with a scab is that it tends to itch. I cannot resist picking at a scab, which of course is not a good thing to to, as it slows the healing process down.
Despite this particular scab being very small, it is really annoying. I cannot resist picking at it.
In its original form, the word ‘scab’ meant a contemptible and distasteful person.
Even now this use is still around.
A person who goes against an industrial strike and carries on working, might find themselves being labelled as a scab.
One of the most curious things about the English language is how much it has changed over its nine hundred year existence.
Even in a short time English has undergone many changes. For example:
from the time of William Shakespeare till now, the way in which English exists as a written and spoken language has altered in numerous ways.
From Old English to Middle English, then Early Modern English, which by the way is what William Shakespeare used in his writing, right up to the present Modern English.
The English language has undergone many stages of change, both large and small.
It would be fair to say that the English language will never stop changing.
Even now there are new words being added all the time, as well as new definitions of existing words. This is most apparent now in the use of informal language and slang.
There will always be an element of ‘the shock of the new’ in English and there will always be those who believe that these changes are for the worse.
I have received a question from Khanh Huen, watching in Vietnam who asks —
«What does the word ‘contravention’ mean and how is it used?»
Well Khanh, the word ‘contravention’ is the noun form of ‘contravene’, which means ‘to disobey’, or ‘to break a rule’.
If you go against a rule of law, then you have contravened it. It is a contravention.
To flout (глумиться, попирать) or create an infringement (посягательство, вторжение) is to be in contravention of a law.
To go against a ruling (судебное постановление) or a bylaw (постановление, регламент) is to contravene those rules.
«You can’t leave your car there, it’s a contravention of parking restrictions.»
If one country breaks the rules, set by a group of nations, then that government has done something in contravention of an agreed law.
‘To contravene’ is ‘to commit a contravention’.
You have broken a rule.
To show disregard (игнорировать) for a certain law is to contravene.
‘Contravene’ is the verb and ‘contravention’ is the noun.
Thank you Khanh for your question and a big ‘hello’ to you and everyone watching in Vietnam.
Can you see what is standing here behind me?
This is a tripod. It is used for stabilising things such as cameras and binoculars.
The legs support and stabilise the things that is attached to it.
The word ‘tripod’ means ‘three legs’. The ‘tri’ part of the word relates to the number 3. There is also a thing called a ‘monopod’, which has just one leg or support.
The ‘mono’ part of the word relates to the number 1.
A single thing is a ‘mono’.
For two similar things that are connected we use ‘be’.
The word ‘bi’ can be relate to a couple or pair, or to something that happens twice in a certain period of time.
If we have four things to describe, then we say ‘quad’. For example —
a quad-bike (4-wheels), or a quadrangle, which is a four sided shape.
All of these words originate from either Latin or Greek.
So, to recap —
1 — is ‘mono (or uni)’
2 — is ‘bi’
3 — is ‘tri’
4 — is ‘quad (or quart)’
And while we are looking at this I might as well tell you that
8 — is ‘oct’ as in ‘octopus’ or ‘octagon’
And ‘quin’ which means — 5, as in ‘quintet’, which is a musical group consisting of five people.
… That is all from me for today.
I will see you very soon for «Full English» number sixteen.
This is Misterduncan in the birthplace of the English language saying …
thank you for watching me, teaching you and until next time … ta-ta for now.